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Spain: Companies Merger 2020

Spain is a developed European country, which, despite the leaps and a series of crises, has always been distinguished by high investment attractiveness. 2020 has changed a lot for the worse for most countries in…

Sweden: Due Diligence in Private M&A

M&A deals in Sweden, as in any other European country, necessarily include the due diligence procedure of the target object before the agreement is concluded. Any legal entity planning to conclude an M&A deal, or…

Ireland: M&A 2020

In 2020, despite the problems associated with the coronavirus pandemic, activity in the field of mergers and acquisitions in Ireland continues. Ireland is often associated with such a concept as "offshore jurisdiction", which is erroneous….

What Is The Right Time To Sell A Business

The decision of business owners as to whether or not to sell a business is a complex and problematic issue. This review will be useful for entrepreneurs who want to sell a company abroad and…

Companies Merger and Reorganization in Cyprus

The Cypriot regime of mergers and reorganizations of companies is actively taking place not only at the local level (that is, between local structures), but also at the cross-border level. If there is a merger…

China: IP Protection

Last year saw the CPC’s General Office & China’s State Council issue a joint statement dedicated to the strengthening of IP protection in China. The document’s main emphasis was on the problems with litigation in…

Ireland: Trade Secrets Protection

Undoubtedly, the key to success in almost any business is the orderliness of the processes of collecting, processing, using and storing information. All these facilitate proper protection of trade secrets which often constitute main assets…

Switzerland: M&A

Acquiring private companies in Switzerland is a process that consists of two stages: signing an agreement; closing a deal. The signing of an agreement & closing of a deal can take place simultaneously if there’s…

China: M&A

Concluding M&A deals in the PRC is always a challenge. And given the recent spike in tensions between the PRC & the US, the requirements for foreign investors have become even more rigorous. If the…

Slovakia: M&A

Concluding an M&A deal in Slovakia requires notifying the AMO (Slovakia's main financial regulator) transaction; however, no strict deadline is set for submitting a notification. The notification can also be submitted to the regulator prior…

Luxembourg: Protecting a TM

Ever since the TM Act was adopted, ensuring protection of TMs in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg has required filing a claim. Filing claims for violation of TM rights in Luxembourg requires submitting an application…

Italy: M&A

Acquiring & selling companies in the Republic of Italy is usually done through negotiations between sellers & purchasers. In the majority of cases, purchasers & sellers are LLCs or JSCs.  Normally, acquiring an enterprise in…

Cyprus: DD of Deals Involving Sale & Purchase of Vessels

Registering vessels in Cyprus requires keeping in mind several important considerations. For example, prior to signing a deal involving the sale & purchase of a yacht in the Republic of Cyprus, buyers should perform DD….

M&A in the Sector of Money Transfers

Nowadays, registering an e-business is becoming increasingly popular. Digital technologies have filled the world space, and we will not be mistaken if we call our society digital. And the COVID-19 pandemic, which suddenly burst into…

Germany: Franchising

The past ten years have seen the number of people wishing to open a franchise business in Germany triple. That’s mainly attributable to the lack of specific legal provisions governing the conclusion of franchise agreements…

ROFR vs ROFO

Acquiring a company is a very important decision for those wishing to conduct business abroad. It requires taking into account multiple factors, such as local legislation, permits, visas and many others. To help you overcome…

Chatbots in Business: Legal Issues

The rapid development of technologies in the field of artificial intelligence has created conditions for the increase in the use of chatbots in business. Further in our blog post, we will talk about what chatbots…

Negotiations: 5 Effective Strategies

Negotiating plays a key role in ensuring effective communication between companies & their customers. Being an effective communicator helps you negotiate a better deal & assure your company’s lasting success in the future. There’s several…

IP Protection in Singapore

In this review, we will look at options for registering intellectual property rights, as well as how to protect IP rights in Singapore. An invaluable resource Intellectual property (IP) can be an extremely valuable resource…

Selecting a lawyer for launching a start-up project

Startups, especially freshly launched ones, are bound to encounter all sorts of legal challenges. And they do not just involve issues with regulators or compliance with numerous legislative acts. Sometimes, simply registering a start-up project…

Financial & Corporate Law

If you’re planning on registering a company in Switzerland, the US or any other country of the world, sooner or later you’ll find yourself confronted with financial & corporate law.  So, what is it? Let's…

Singapore: ICO

ICO is a type of fundraising that relies heavily on DLT technology. Unlike IPO which involves issuing shares in exchange for fiat currencies, ICO relies on the issuance of tokens which are then exchanged for…

Slovenia: Legal Services Market

Slovenia's economy has been growing at an unprecedented rate lately, and so has the revenue of the country’s top thirty law firms. Since 2012, it has increased by nearly thirty percent, totalling EUR 140 mln….

HOW TO REORGANIZE A COMPANY IN THE US, BELGIUM, AND LUXEMBOURG

If you decide to reorganize a legal entity, you are probably motivated by factors that have led or may lead to stagnation of the company. Of course, this important decision should be taken only after…

Public M&A in France: Hostile Takeovers

Most often control over a French public company is achieved through a voluntary or obligatory public tender. There is no ban on hostile takeovers in France, but they are not typical for this country and…

Luxembourg: Concluding an M&A Deal

Acquiring a company in Luxembourg is governed by the M&A Act & controlled by the CSSF, Luxembourg’s main financial regulator. So, let’s see what other legal prerequisites potential purchasers will have to comply with to…

Ireland: How Funds are Established and Administered

The Central Bank of Ireland is the key regulator responsible for the authorization of all types of funds in the jurisdiction. This refers to the registration of businesses under UCITS in Ireland and the establishment…

IP Protection in the Italian Fashion Business

It is worth throwing all doubts aside if you have decided to register a TM in Italy in the fashion industry. It is in Italy, one of the world centers of fashion and luxury goods,…

UAE: Private M&A

Individuals or legal entities considering conducting an M&A transaction in the UAE should keep in mind that such transactions are becoming increasingly complex. Therefore, prior to closing an M&A deal in the UAE they should…

Spain: IP Protection in the Fashion Industry

Registering & protecting a fashion brand in Spain helps its owner prevent others from illegally using the original product. So, let’s consider the main points worth keeping in mind when protecting a fashion brand in…

Spain: Regulation of the Fashion Industry

Those considering registering a fashion company in Spain should keep in mind that the country’s fashion industry is extremely important for the global fashion market. Many Spanish companies supply goods for major international brands or…

Ireland: Public M&A Deals

Public M&A transactions in Ireland are governed by the M&A Act, which provides for the establishment of the Irish Acquisition Commission & Acquisition Rules. The rules have the force of law, while the Commission has…

M&A in the UAE

The UAE continues to lead the regional market in terms of volume and value, however, the investor confidence in regional private equity firms lowered the past year. Thinking to acquire a company in the United…

Austria: Merger Notice

Conducting an M&A deal in Austria requires prior notification. There’s no legally required deadline for making advance notice; however, since M&A deals mustn’t be concluded before resolution, it’s required that notices be issued well in…

Denmark: Public Mergers and Acquisitions

Company acquisition in the Kingdom of Denmark is a great idea as companies registered in Denmark have direct access to the EU market, which covers over 100 million high net worth consumers. According to EU…

Australia: IP Protection in the Fashion Industry

Fashion designers are constantly striving to come up with fresh & innovative products; however, they aren’t always immune to copying each other’s ideas. Therefore, the industry’s prominent representatives often find themselves asking the question: What…

Some Features of M&A in China

Mergers and acquisitions as one of the areas of business and its capitalization currently do not lose their relevance in the business world. If an individual or a company is willing to initiate an overseas…

Merger Permit in Singapore

Planning to initiate a merger transaction in Singapore? As in any other jurisdiction, it is important to promptly notify government authorities of the transaction. In Singapore, there are no clear deadlines for notification of plans…

Buying a Company in Switzerland

In this article, we will analyze the regulation of private M&A transactions in Switzerland. Acquisitions of private enterprises in Switzerland can usually be through the purchase of shares or assets. Protectionism of Swiss companies Switzerland…

M&A Regulation in Israel

Acquisitions of private companies in Israel can have a different structure. You can buy shares of the company or its assets. Companies can also make a merger deal. Below, we will describe in more detail…

Legal Framework for Private M&A in Sweden

In this article, we will describe the regulation of private M&A transactions in Sweden. One of the key features of M&A transactions involving private companies, enterprises, or assets in this jurisdiction is contractual freedom which…

Myanmar: Due Diligence in Private M&A

If you are planning a private M&A deal in Myanmar, you should read our selection of materials on this topic. The previous publication covered the general aspects of the regulation of private mergers and acquisitions,…

Private M&A Deals in Singapore

Typically, acquisitions of business in Singapore and assets of private companies are made on the basis of a sale contract. Deals can also be structured in the form of a contractual offer. They may include…

Norway: DD in M&A Transactions

We’ve already covered the specifics of M&A transactions in Norway & importance of DD. Today, we’ll be taking a closer look at the key aspects of DD in M&A deals in Norway & its types….

Canada: Regulation of Company Acquisitions

The previous article outlined the key features to consider when choosing a method of acquiring a public company in Canada. The current blog post provides an explanation of the mergers and acquisitions regulation in this…

Canada: Ways to Acquire a Public Company

Public acquisitions in Canada are a multi-step process. One of its mandatory components is obtaining approval from the holder of the securities, as well as the court. Takeover bids are also a fairly popular way…

Turkey: Regulation of M&A Transactions

M&A deals in the Republic of Turkey are concluded in accordance with the generally accepted international practices. If there’s several potential purchasers, an auction similar to the one held in Great Britain & the US…

Law

Great Britain: Sport Legal Relations

Brand Protection When it comes to protecting brand identity, registering TMs in Great Britain takes on particular importance. Therefore, sporting organizations can obtain copyright protection in Great Britain for literary works, movies, blogs, articles, etc. …

UAE: Regulation of Private M&A

Interested in concluding an M&A deal in the UAE? Looking for information on regulation of M&A deals in Dubai? If you are, then what follows below will definitely be of interest to you. UAE: Structure…

Due Diligence of Technology M&A in Turkey

Billions of dollars are spent annually on technology mergers and acquisitions in Turkey. These deals have many hidden pitfalls, especially those related to the transfer of ownership of technological developments. Therefore, for their own safety,…

Greece: Due Diligence in Private M&A

An important aspect of M&A transactions is due diligence in private M&A in EU countries, which will be discussed in today's blog post. We will dwell in more detail on the peculiarities of due diligence…

Private M&A in Myanmar Issues

Myanmar has got rid of the military dictatorship not long ago and is taking steps to improve legislation to attract foreign investment. For example, the Companies Law has been recently amended, which makes the investment…

Private M&A in Germany

During the economic downturn that occurs in many developed countries due to Covid-19, there is a trend towards an increase in the number of mergers and acquisitions of companies. M&A deals in Germany is also…

India: DD of Private M&A Transactions

Private M&A deals in India are primarily used by companies looking to expand the scope of their operations & penetrate new markets. Acquiring private companies in India implies that each acquired business maintains its corporate…

Finland: Due Diligence in Private M&A

Today's article examines the features of due diligence in the context of private M&A in Finland. Who can do due diligence in Finland? If you are planning to acquire a company in Finland, then you…

M&A Deals in the Kingdom of Norway

Selling & acquiring businesses (or assets) in the Kingdom of Norway is usually preceded by the signing of SPA agreements. If target companies have several owners, each of whom owns a minority stake in them,…

Due Diligence of Technology M&A Deals in Belgium

Today, the largest number of M&A deals take place in the financial, consumer and technology sectors. At the same time, the introduction of technologies and innovations in other areas is growing exponentially (fintech, agrotech, etc.),…

Preparing a Business for Sale

You have been working hard to make your business a success, haven’t you? But what should you do to maximize its value? In fact, selling a business requires one to comply with some basic requirements,…

Recent Trends in the Canadian M&A Market

Despite instability in the domestic & international markets, M&A deals in Canada are being concluded on an even bigger scale than before. And the signing of the NAFTA agreement has given this trend renewed impetus. …

Concluding M&A Deals in Hong Kong

Usually, acquiring businesses in HK SAR requires concluding a contract for the sale of a company or assets. Non-public companies can also be purchased through signing an agreement, provided it is done according to the…

How to protect your TM in the EU

After filing an application for registration of a trademark in the EU, an examination procedure is carried out with respect to each mark applied for registration. As a result of such examination, the trademark applicant…

Top Tips For Creative Business Negotiations

In business negotiations, as in any negotiation in everyday life, creativity and flexibility are essential. After all, the situation does not always turn in the right direction for us. Conducting international negotiations with the help…

Concluding M&A Deals in the Republic of Finland

The two most popular ways of concluding M&A deals in Finland involve selling shares or selling entire companies. Signing an M&A agreement in the Republic of Finland can be affected by a number of factors,…

How to Move Business from Cyprus to Another Jurisdiction

When entrepreneurs are asked why they have set up a company in Cyprus, the typical answer is that it is warm here and all operations are carried out strictly according to the law. However, the…

How to Protect a Domain Name?

Many domain name holders are intimidated by the question of how to protect a domain name. And this is not surprising since from a legal point of view it is quite a complicated issue. We…

M&A Deals During the Coronavirus Pandemic

Since its outbreak, the coronavirus pandemic has been interrupting, and in some cases hindering, companies’ operation. It has also influenced the way purchasers & sellers prepare for & conclude M&A deals. Therefore, governments of different…

Why Your Business Needs A Shareholders Agreement

In countries with a common law system, it is almost impossible to imagine a successful business without concluding a shareholders agreement, also known as corporate agreement. This document details all the rights and obligations of…

Business Purchase&Sale Transactions in Mexico

Prior to buying or selling a business in Mexico, or an M&A deal in that jurisdiction, you should get familiarized with its legal framework carefully to avoid mistakes. If the decision is made, you should…

Regulation of M&A transactions in Egypt

Most foreign companies operating in Egypt are joint-stock or limited liability companies. There are also sole proprietorships but they are less common. Egyptian private company sales transactions are structured in accordance with the Companies Act…

COVID-19 and international arbitration

International arbitration is one of the most common ways to resolve commercial disputes in the world. Therefore, any commercial organization that works with foreign counterparties, one way or another, may encounter consideration of the case…

A Guide for Startups Wishing to Register a Trademark in The EU

Startups are well aware that at the start of a business it is necessary to take care of trademark protection and register it. The trademark is protected territorially, that is, its protection extends only to…

Trademarks Registration and Protection in The Benelux

To begin with, the three countries which are parts of the Benelux – Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg – have concluded an agreement on the unification of their national trademark laws signed at the beginning…

Protection of TM and IP in Sweden

Sweden is known both in Europe and around the world as an advocate of intellectual property rights and is a signatory to almost all international conventions in this area. That is, the IP protection issue…

Acquiring a ready-made company in Hong Kong

If you intend to acquire a private company in Hong Kong, then first you need to familiarize yourself with the features of conducting such sales transactions in this country. In the case of buying and…

Franchising in Great Britain

Franchising  is an arrangement between two or more parties whereby the franchisor grants the franchisee a right to use their trademarks, production processes & business systems to come up with a product or service which…

Offshore Funds in the Caymans

Planning on creating investment funds in the Caymans? If so, then you should know that doing so requires being up to date on the recent developments in the structure of offshore funds in the this…

New Technologies & the Legal Sector in the UK

Given the ongoing coronavirus pandemic, legal service providers are increasingly recognizing the necessity to come up with new ways of responding to the needs of their clients. In particular, this concerns the changes in customer…

Crowdfunding in Brief

Collective conscious In 2009, a new way of finding financing for their projects, crowdfunding, gained popularity among entrepreneurs. And then, more than ten years ago, and today its essence remains the same and is associated…

Estimating a Foreign Company’s Value

Determining a correlation between the value & location of an asset is what makes asset assessment so challenging. Assessing country risk provides an accurate picture of how operating an asset in this or that country…

M&A Deals in the US

Businessmen seeking to expand their business in the US can do so by buying a company that has gone through an M&A process. However, one should not forget that acquiring a company may require conducting…

Franchise Agreements in the UK – Key Features

The franchise networks establishing and promotion can be noted on almost the entire European continent. Due to its reliability, franchising continues to be one of the most popular forms of doing business and is actively…

Due Diligence (DD)

DD is a process whereby a potential deal or investment prospect is checked, investigated or audited. The idea behind is to verify everything that is revealed during the process of M&A & investment.  Need help…

How to Protect TM Associated with Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) is an irreversible global trend that is evolving at an incredible rate and constantly poses ever new unique challenges to technology companies. This review will explain why, for AI-related firms, a brand…

Due Diligence For Investors In Venture Capital Transactions

The venture capital market is increasingly attracting new players. Nevertheless, the IT sector remains the leader in the number of venture transactions and the amount of investments attracted in the world, which is not surprising,…

Obtaining Sensitive Information During Due Diligence

Due diligence is becoming increasingly popular among business owners and investors. How to protect yourself, your reputation and your assets during M&A transactions or investing? Due Diligence customers are usually companies that are buying business,…

Law

Consideration in Treaties Under English Law

In our previous article on the main components of a legally binding common law contract, we looked at three out of four elements: Offer; Acceptance; Intention to create a legal relationship. In this article, we…

Mergers Explained

Being about 1 company buying another, mergers & acquisitions usually result in the formation of a larger entity. Mergers (or takeovers) are usually divided into friendly ones, backflip ones & hostile ones. In this article,…

Acquisitions & Mergers Explained

An M&A deal is all about two, three or more companies consolidating to form a new entity. Typically, it involves numerous components, including corporate finance & asset purchases, that simplify this process. A merger is…

Assessing Damage Relating to the Breaching of a Contract

Introduction Imagine producing expensive, high-quality goods & having a network of loyal customers. In an attempt to increase your output, you conclude a contract whereby a modern production line will be installed at your production…

Mediation Explained

Being a very effective tool for resolving commercial disputes, mediation is widely practiced around the world nowadays. The main piece of legislation governing settlement of commercial disputes on the international arena is the Singapore Convention…

Planning to buy a gambling business in the EU? Do not neglect the legal audit before buying

The gaming industry has grown into a multi-billion business, attracting investors around the world. Gambling has become more accessible to a wide range of users with the rapid growth of youth among online players. There…

Why Do Companies Need a Corporate Lawyer?

Having a corporate lawyer plays a key role in ensuring successful operation of any company. Their responsibilities may include legal support of transactions, dispute resolution, litigation, and preparation of regulatory documents. Below you will find…

How to Check the Counterparties or Business Partners Reliability in the UK?

Companies that are interested in conducting due diligence procedures with respect to an individual or company should pay attention to recent situations that have undermined the reputation of world-famous companies due to espionage and surveillance…

What Are Franchise Agreements All About?

Nowadays, a number of enterprises use franchise schemes as a means of expanding their businesses. However, registering a franchise requires getting legal advice about the intricacies involved in this process. Therefore, familiarizing yourself with procedure…

IQ Decision Expertise: What is a Life Trust?

In this educational article, we will look at a type of agreement called the Life Trust, also known as a revocable trust. This is a document where its founder acts as a trustee, granting the…

IQ Decision Expertise: How to Draw Up an Agreement and Protocol of Intent

Contracts are an important part of our daily business life. Contract law is one of the main branches of law, which requires high legal qualifications and expertise from the person who deals with it. Therefore,…

Belief is the Key: How Venture Capital Works

Do you believe in angels? If you are a startup owner, you’d better do – in angel investors. Who these mysterious people are, and how the mechanism of venture capital works as a whole please…

Trademark Registration and Protection in The EU

Trademark as a Tool to Stand Out In the world of consumption, the functions performed by the trademark today provide the following benefits for the product and its manufacturer: the allocation of goods from the…

Umbrella Fund in the EU – Cyprus Preference

Cyprus has a favourable environment for opening an umbrella fund in the European Union. In order to set up an umbrella fund in Cyprus (RAIF) you don’t need any specialized license. Such funds are supervised…

Trust Agreement. What is it?

Trust Agreement or Trust Deed is an agreement in which one person transfers ones assets to another person (Trustee). In accordance with the terms of this agreement it is possible to transfer money, securities, real…

International Negotiations

Vibrant business activity often leads to disagreements between the people involved in commercial activities that subsequently develop into resource-intensive and costly financial disputes. Frequently, it is hard to resolve a suddenly emerged problem without a…

Setting Up a Payment System Account Legal Advisory Services

The foundation for the rapid development of the EU FinTech industry and for SEPA (Single Euro Payments Area) was laid back in December 2007, when the first Payment Service Directive (PSD) was adopted. PSD has…

Registration of Ships/Yachts

The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) that has been joined by 167 countries and the European Union as of June 2016, provides the rules of international law governing the registration…

International Trade Law: Need Help?

International commercial (trade) law is not a separate legal system, branch or sub-branch of international law. It is rather a comprehensive legal concept that includes the norms and provisions of different international regulations, treaties, conventions…

Investment Support Services

IQ Decision UK investment management specialists will provide you with professional legal advisory services depending on the type of your investment tools in the following fields: Real estate (income-generating property); Industrial production (technological lines, equipment,…

Corporate Services: Incorporation/Company Structure Advising

Business Advisory Services Advising is a type of professional, intellectual services provided to corporate clients interested in optimizing their businesses, associated with solving complex problems of an enterprise in the field of management and organizational…

General principles of English contract law

This article is devoted to the most common issues of contract law, including its historical and legal aspects of formation. English legal system was formed by centuries of case law. The contract as a legally…

Ship and Yacht Registration Services

One of the most important things when registering your yacht or vessel is to choose the right flag of convenience (FOC). Deciding which flag your naval vessel will be registered under depends on many factors,…

FIDIC CONTRACTS

FIDIC One of the most authoritative organizations in the international investment and construction industry is The International Federation of Consulting Engineers (FIDIC). It gained its reputation thanks to the release of standard contract documentation. Overall,…

Law

International Trade Law

The effective practical application of the provisions of international trade law is one of the most important aspects one should consider in trying to establish a successful cross-border business. The globalization of the world economy,…

Law

Real Estate Transactions, Land Dispute Settlement

Why do you need to buy real estate abroad? Well, you can buy real property for yourself and reside in a livable country in your own house or apartment, or you can use your real…

International Dispute Settlement: Mediation, Court Support Services

How to resolve a dispute? Do you have to go to court? Pre-trial settlement of commercial disputes is becoming increasingly popular in Europe and throughout the world. The global leaders in the development of alternative…

Incorporation Services

The most common way of doing business around the world is the incorporation of a company. Incorporation is known as a legal process used to form a corporate entity that varies from one country or…

Investment Management Services

Investment protection is the first and most important rule of the investment business. The question is how to protect your investment? Investment activity is a complex and multifaceted process with its own “pitfalls”. The support…

Corporate Services

The transparency of the modern world gives you the opportunity to put your ideas into practice nearly anywhere in the world. But behind the seeming simplicity, there are also some difficulties with translating into reality…